I’m planning to return to blogging now. For a while, I’ve felt unsure what to blog about, but now I’m going to try to get some ideas out and see how it goes.
For this post, I’ll just share a picture I took of some good food.
This is Hangari Bajirak Kalgooksoo restaurant in Koreatown, Los Angeles.
- Hangari (항아리) is spelled and pronounced hang-a-ri (not Han-ga-ri) because the first syllable comes from Chinese 缸 (gāng), meaning a jar or container for liquid. Hangari means “jar.”
- Bajirak (바지락) means clam.
- Kalgooksoo is nonstandard Romanization for kalguksu (칼국수). Kal means knife, and guksu means noodles, so Kalguksu means knife[-cut] noodles, akin to Chinese 刀削麵 (dāoxiāomiàn).
- I recommend this place.
- The kimchi were fresh, and everything was tasty.
- I must have had +40 clams in my soup. If I went back I would order mixed seafood.
Mark Zuckerberg made his first public appearance speaking Mandarin Chinese today at Tsinghua University in Beijing. I’ve translated the entire interview below. He tackled a broad range of issues and even fielded student questions. Enjoy!
NB: Quartz.com has an alternate translation of some of the key passages. You should be able to find a transcription of the Chinese with a Google search. If there are mistakes in my translation, please don’t hesitate to point them out!
Tsinghua University School of Economics and Management
2014 Advisory Board Meeting
Tsinghua Students’ Dialogue with Board Members [of the Advisory Board]
Tsinghua x-lab Session
Host Wei Xiaoliang (魏小亮):
(in English) Now let’s introduce the founder of Facebook, Mark Zuckerberg.
(in Mandarin) Hello everyone. I’m happy to be here. (applause) I’m happy to come to Beijing. I love this city. My Chinese is terrible, but today I’ll try speaking Chinese. Ok? (applause) I might need practice.
Mark, everyone is really surprised that you can speak Chinese. Why did you want to learn Chinese?
Really interesting. (laughter) There are three reasons. Second… First, my wife is Chinese. (applause) Her family speaks Chinese and her grandmother speaks only Chinese. So, I want to communicate with them. Two years ago, Priscilla [Chan] and I decided to get married. So I told her grandmother– in Chinese. She was very surprised. (laughter)
Priscilla is your wife?
Yeah. Second, I think it’s that I want to study Chinese culture. China is a great nation. I think learning the language helps me study the culture. So I study the language. Third, Mandarin is hard. I only speak English, but I like a challenge. (applause)
So, how about tonight we challenge him? I’ll speak in Chinese. How many times have you been to China?
Four times. I’ve been to Beijing, Shanghai, Hangzhou, Tianjin…
Tianjin? Why did you go to Tianjin?
I see, so you’re a big fan of Huo Yuanjia, so you will go see his hometown. So which city do you like best?
All of them [unclear]. Maybe I like Beijing the most. In all China… it has a lot of history.
So this time in China, what’s your plan?
This time in China, what’s your plan?
This week I’m joining the Advisory Board of the Tsinghua University School of Economics and Management. I came to take part in the Advisory Board meeting. I think Tsinghua students are great. Facebook has more than 140 Tsinghua alumni. You are one! (indicating host) Every year, we recruit the best engineers in China. Just last week we recruited 20 Chinese students.
Right, just last month we recruited 20 Chinese students and soon they will come over to Facebook to work. So, could you talk about why you wanted to join the Advisory Board of the Tsinghua University School of Economics and Management?
First, I have to thank Dean Qian [Yingyi 钱颖一]. Yeah, and, I’m honored to join the Advisory Board of the Tsinghua University School of Economics and Management. I’m very interested in education. In the USA, I’ve done a lot of things to support education. I wanted to take part in this committee [because it’s] a great opportunity for me to learn about and support education in China.
Great. Mark wants to support Chinese education. (applause) This month, you also went to quite a few different countries. What is the purpose of this trip?
I’ve been to India, Indonesia, Korea, and Japan. We want to help more people use the Internet. Today, most of the world–65% or about five billion people–don’t have Internet. Some people–about 15%–don’t have a network. About 35% of people have never used a network. But most people who don’t have the Internet don’t have it because they don’t know why they [would] want to use the Internet. If you asked me–sorry, if I asked you, if you don’t have a computer, a phone, or the Internet and I asked you, “Do you want to use the Internet?” You might ask me, “Why would I want to use the Internet?” So there are lots of problems. But we need to connect the world. The Internet creates job opportunities and economic development. It’s very important.
Connecting the world is something Mark takes very seriously. You want to connect the world. When did you begin to want to connect the world?
In 2004, I created the first version of Facebook because I wanted to connect all the students at Harvard. I have always thought there should be a product to connect the whole world, but I thought other companies [would] do it. I remember when I was a college student, every evening my friends and I would eat pizza and talk about the future. Long ago, after I created the first version [of Facebook], I told my friends, “I’m really happy we’ve helped connect students, but [there should be] a product to connect the world.” But we [were] just students. I thought another company [would] do it. I thought perhaps Google, Microsoft, or another company. They had more than ten thousand programmers and more than one hundred million users. We [were] just students. However, we’ve always believed that social media are very powerful. Other companies didn’t believe it. We’ve believed that all along, so we built one. Now, we have 1.3 billion users.
So in the last ten years, Mark built a truly amazing company. Mark, there are a lot of students here who want to start companies. What kind of advice to you have for them?
Start a company? I think the best companies are started not because the founders want to start a company, but because the founders want to change the world. (applause) If you decide that you want to start a company, you might start to develop your first idea. You might recruit a lot of employees. But you might have lots of ideas. You don’t know which idea is the best. If your first idea is bad, then your company is bad. But, if you decide to change the world, shouldn’t you come up with many ideas? If any idea is good, then you create a company.
Great advice. Wait until your idea is good, then create a company. So, in the process of creating Facebook, what was the secret to your success?
I think the best thing is that you can’t give up. Developing a company is hard. Most things won’t go smoothly. You will need to make difficult decisions; you will need to fire some employees.
Are you saying you’re going to fire me today? (laughter)
So, if you don’t believe in your mission, it is easy to give up. Most entrepreneurs give up, but the best entrepreneurs don’t. So believing in your mission and not giving up are very important.
It’s safe to say you are one of the most successful entrepreneurs. What thoughts do you have about innovation in China?
Yes, yes, yes.
Xiaomi is a very innovative company. They are developing quickly and have lots of different products. They’re cheap. (laughter) I think Xiaomi will grow quickly. Tencent’s WeChat is also huge. Most Chinese people use WeChat or QQ. Taobao is also very innovative. Taobao creates job opportunities. I think China has many of the world’s most innovative companies.
So Mark really has a good feeling about innovation in our China. Speaking of China, I’m going to ask Mark a relatively difficult question. Will I get fired today? So, what’s your plan for Facebook in China? (applause) A difficult question.
We’re already in China. (laughter) We help Chinese companies get more overseas customers. They use Facebook ads to find more customers. For example, Lenovo uses Facebook ads in Indonesia to sell new phones. I forgot, Lenovo’s [unclear]. Yeah, that one. In China I also see economic development. We’re very impressed. It’s amazing. So we want to help other places in the world connect to China. Like great cities, national parks… Hangzhou and Qingdao also have great pages on Facebook. We work with these cities to develop pages and share Chinese culture.
Great, and this difficult a question Mark answered with just one sentence. Let’s give him a round of applause. (applause) After a difficult question, let’s take it easy a bit. I’ll ask Mark some personal questions, easier questions, so he can give us some details of his [personal] life. So how about we ask you some questions about your personal life?
First question: what colors do you like?
I can’t see red or green, because Facebook is blue. (Note: Mark is red-green colorblind.)
What kind of Chinese food do you like?
When I’m in Beijing, I always eat Beijing street food (lit. hútóng xiǎochī), but I also like Beijing roast duck.
No wonder you like Beijing so much, you like Beijing street food and Beijing duck. So, outside of work, what kind of activities do you do?
I have no time outside [of work]. (laughter)
Ok, I cook with Priscilla.
I recall you also have a pet?
We have a dog. His name is Beast. He’s a [Hungarian] sheepdog. He’s really short. I love him.
You also made a page for Beast.
I develop Beast’s page. Beast has 2 million fans.
The next question is also hard. Between you and Priscilla, whose Chinese is better?
In Mandarin, I can say more words, but she also speaks Cantonese. Her listening comprehension is better than mine. My listening is really bad. One day I asked her, “Why is my listening so bad?” and she told me, “Your listening is bad in English, too!”
Thank you so much Mark. We still have some time, so why don’t we invite one or two students to ask some questions?
Should I use English or Chinese? Chinese? (asks a question in Mandarin, translated below)
How did you start Facebook, and…
You asked me…
(translates her own question into English) How did Facebook establish a competitive edge toward other social network sites and what was the biggest challenge? And the second question is at what moment did you get a leap of faith and decide to leave school and devote [yourself to] your enterprise?
(in Mandarin) Second question: I was really fortunate. I never decided to leave. Harvard students can take temporary leave, so I created the first version of Facebook, and the second year it was too much to develop Facebook and go to class, so I was really fortunate in that I just took temporary leave and didn’t go to class. I’m still a Harvard student. From time to time, Harvard’s leader asks me, or tells me, “You can come back.” But now I can’t go back.
First question: the biggest challenge. Our biggest challenge perhaps was in 2012, when we needed to make Facebook a mobile company. Before, we weren’t one. In 2012, our growth was very slow, and our monetary growth was very slow, and everyone was unhappy. However, we made Facebook into a mobile company, and now we have more than one billion users using Facebook on their mobile phones.
(in English) My name is Yang Zhilun, from the school of social work, and also a member of the x-lab. I’m very glad to ask a question. From the Internet and mobile Internet, we know that the progress of science and technology has greatly accelerated our human society, especially the revolution [sic]. From your perspective, what is the next big advance in technology?
Very interesting. This year Facebook is ten years old.
Ten years? (Note: “Ten” sounds a lot like “four” in Mandarin.)
So I ask, in the next ten years, what should we develop? I decided what are the next things we will develop. First, we need to connect the whole world. We need to help all people use the Internet. Second, we want to develop “artificial intelligence.”
(in Mandarin) Artificial intelligence.（人工智能）
I don’t know [that word in Chinese]. I think ten years from now, computers will be better than humans at seeing, listening comprehension, and language, so we’ve developing that. Third, once everyone is using mobile phones, I believe the next platform is “virtual reality.” I don’t know how to say that [in Chinese] either.
(in Mandarin) Virtual reality. （虚拟现实）
Oculus is the first product, but we want to have many products.
(End of video.)
World-renowned Japanese writer Murakami Haruki has a new book out, his first collection of short stories in nine years. The title is「女のいない男たち」or The Men Without Women, and it includes six new stories, all of which were first published in the last six months.
While Murakami’s novels are always published in English within a year or so of their initial publication (the next one, Colorless Tsukuru Tazaki and His Years of Pilgrimage, will come out this year), his short story collections are not usually published in English. That is, the publishers usually make their own collections, such as in the case of The Elephant Vanishes (17 stories spanning the 1980s, and published 12 years later in Japanese as「象の消滅」). The Chinese publishers seem to do the same thing. The difference is that the Chinese publishers will take a well-known story, make it the title of a collection, and publish it with a bunch of lesser-known stories. The English-language publishers seem to publish fewer, larger collections and simply don’t bother to translate and print the lesser-known stories. Thus, I surmise that this book may never come out in English as The Men Without Women. Fans who don’t read Japanese will have to wait for the next short story collection.
As for the title, I translate it as The Men Without Women rather than Men Without Women (or Men Whose Women Are Gone, etc.) because otoko tachi (rather than simply otoko) seems to refer to specific men. Indeed, in each of these six stories, the protagonist is a man without a woman. However, it is probably not a coincidence that Ernest Hemingway published a collection of ten short stories about men in 1927, called Men Without Women, and the name of that book in Japanese translation is—you guessed it—Onna no inai otoko tachi. It was translated by Ayukawa Nobuo in 1982, just when Murakami was beginning his writing career.
The Japanese Wikipedia page includes some trivia about the new book. Apparently, it is usual that it does not include a preface. The two stories “Drive My Car” and “Yesterday” were supposedly altered somehow before publication in the book, and “Drive My Car” has already been translated and published in Korean by Yang Eog-gwan (梁億寬).
Below are the front and back covers of the book, with English translations of the story titles, descriptions, and dates/places of publication. All translations are mine, and thus later publications may make different choices.
The Men Without Women
First issue April 20th, 2014
[His] short story world for the first time in nine years.
That story is
And exceeds expectations.
Bungei Shunju publication / Fixed price (JPY 1574 + tax)
Six stories that intertwine and echo.
“Drive My Car”
Bungei Shunju Dec. 2013
Stage actor Kafuku hires Misaki, a female driver. Why did his deceased wife have to have a relationship with that man? Little by little, he began to tell Misaki.
Bungei Shunju Jan. 2014
What is the strange “cultural exchange” proposed by his classmate Kitaru, from Den-en-chōfu but who can speak perfect Kansai dialect? And then, 16 years passed.
Bungei Shunju Mar. 2014
What did his friend, the confirmed bachelor Dr. Tokai, obtain for the first time by sacrificing his life?
MONKEY Vol. 2 Spring 2014
Shut up in the “house” that is a lonely island on land, Habara is toyed with by the story that even the world finds captivating, told by the “contact person” woman after the affair.
Bungei Shunju Feb. 2014
Betrayed by his wife, Kino quit his job and opened a bar. Then at certain times, a strange presence would envelop the place.
“The Men Without Women”
First published here
One night after midnight, a phone call from his former lover’s husband came to deliver sad news.
Esto es un video para la #Add1Challenge. Voy a introducir el lugar donde yo vivo.
This is a video for the #Add1Challenge. I introduce the place where I live.
* With English subtitles.
Caminar en la nieve
¿Te gusta la nieve?
Crecí en Atlanta, en el sur de los Estados Unidos, donde casi nunca nieva.
Sin embargo, recientemente hubo una tormenta de nieve allí.
En ese momento, yo estaba en Nueva York, donde a menudo nieva.
Me gusta la nieve.
Me gusta ver la nieve caer.
Me gusta caminar en la nieve, y patearla.
Cuando nieva, Central Park en Nueva York es muy hermoso.
Fuera de mi ventana, puedo ver la nieve cayendo en ese momento.
¿Tiene que nieve donde usted vive?
It was after that I felt a boredom I had never before experienced. At first I didn’t know why; later I thought it’s always such that when a person’s convictions receive praise it spurs their progress; receive opposition and it spurs their struggle. Only when screaming among strangers, when those strangers do not react—at once no praise, and no opposition—as if finding oneself placed on and endless wasteland, with no recourse at all: what sadness is this! Thus I assumed what I was felt was loneliness.
– Lu Xun, Preface to Nahan [Outcry/A Call to Arms] (1922)
I always come back to reading Lu Xun. He was too influential to overlook and too good to want to. His writing is clear and straightforward and sometimes I get the illusion he is writing in the present day, like I do reading Natsume Soseki. Lu Xun reminds me of Soseki in his mix of earnestness and satire; there I times I laugh out loud reading The True Story of Ah-Q or I Am a Cat. Another interesting connection I’ve noted is the number of Japanese words in Lu Xun’s writing, such as 便當 ‘convenient’ and 卒業 ‘to graduate.’ I don’t know whether these words were common in some register of Chinese and later fell out of use, or if Lu Xun borrowed them from Japanese, or both.
In any case, Lu Xun presents himself in the self-written preface to Nahan as a lonely idealist hoping to change minds but feeling lost. He tries to lose himself in copying ancient engravings until a friend persuades him to write a little something for a magazine called The New Youth. What he wrote became A Madman’s Diary and the rest is history.
NB: The translation above is mine.
Text-to-Speech software is a game-changer for language learning. I’m using TTS to learn several languages at once. The Holy Grail of language resources—sentences with audio—is now something I can mass-produce on my computer. Not every language is included in the TTS functionality of the Mac (no Tibetan or Mongolian, for instance), but Turkish, Indonesian, Cantonese, and many other languages are included and work quite well. The last update added varieties of Spanish, so I vary my Spanish audio with some Argentinian speech.
TTS is so powerful because you can turn text sources into audio sources quickly and automatically. I use the Lonely Planet phrasebooks for most of the languages I study. I can type the text myself, copy it if I have a PDF, or even use the dictation function of TTS to input the text using my own voice. Using dictation is interesting, because it requires that the computer recognize my pronunciation. (For longer phrases, the computer recognizes what I am saying for the most part. For shorter phrases and single words, especially in Korean, it often fails to render.)
I put the phrases as text into an Excel spreadsheet, because Excel spreadsheets are easy to organize and can be converted into tab-delimited plain text files that can be imported into Anki. I started with Spanish and English, copying the Spanish via dictation and the English by typing. Then, it occurred to me I could add Korean in a third column. Then I thought, Why not put them all in one spreadsheet?
All the languages in one place
In one of his videos, Michael Campbell of Glossika in Taiwan explains how he learned eighteen aboriginal Taiwanese languages at once. He has a spreadsheet with glossary items and phrases in each language; to review, he goes down the spreadsheet and reads the phrases aloud. He records himself reading and listens to the recordings repeatedly. Now, I think listening to my own (non-native) pronunciation to memorize phrases is less than ideal, but Mr. Campbell is a pro and is working with languages that are nearly extinct. And, as a memory aide within a greater regimen, this may be a handy technique. I once memorized a Japanese speech that I wrote in this way, by reading it aloud, sentence by sentence, over and over again, and listening to a recording of myself reading it on repeat. I recited it with perfect delivery after only two days. Listening to my pronunciation of Japanese wasn’t ideal, but I had heard so much Japanese that a little foreign accent didn’t throw me off. Similarly, TTS pronunciations are approximations of native/natural speech and thus should not be relied upon solely, but they are far better than silence, and an excellent supplement to memorization. Ideally, we would have native speakers on call to read whatever we need and produce high-quality audio, but this is not feasible. (Mr. Campbell also reminds us that “memorization” is a misnomer, because we don’t need to actually recall the sentences exactly, only build connections in the brain.)
Two practical examples of using Text-to-Speech
- Spanish phrases from Lonely Planet
The first way I’m using TTS is for entering Spanish phrases from my Lonely Planet phrasebook into Anki. I type or dictate dissonances into excels in Microsoft excel, and then I add the English in another column. Then, I export the file as a UTF-16 plain text file, then convert it to a UTF-8 plain text file, then imported it into Anki. Then, I use the “Awesome TTS” plugin in Anki to mass generate MP3 files for the sentences using the Mac’s built-in TTS software. (The plugin also works with Google’s software, available for free via Internet.)
- Input Spanish phrases into Excel
- Input English translations
- “Save As” UTF-16 plain text file
- Open in TextEdit and “save as” UTF-8 plain text file
- Install & configure the Awesome TTS plugin
- Make sure Spanish TTS voice is installed (Mac)
- Make sure your Spanish card type has an Audio field
- Import UTF-8 file in Anki using the CTRL+I import function
- Select all new cards & use Awesome TTS mass generate MP3 function, using the Spanish field as the source and the audio field as destination
10. Make sure you put the audio field on the card, and you should have audio for every phrase
NB: In a later post I’ll show screenshots of how I organize my many note types.
2. Korean phrases from TTMIK intermediate dialogues
I think everyone and their mother studying Korean is using the Talk to Me in Korean series, with good reason. If you are, absolutely download the Anki public decks for the sentences from the grammar lessons, and the sentences for the “Iyagi” intermediate dialogues. These premade decks have saved me thousands of hours of work, and I wish I could tip the people who made them. As I go through the sentences in these two decks, I add the phrases that I don’t understand or need to memorize to new Anki cards, and then use TTS to generate audio for them.
A workflow for Korean:
- Download the public decks and convert the card types to match your Korean cards
- Add unknown phrases or phrases you’d like to memorize from the public deck cards onto new cards
- Use Awesome TTS to generate audio for the new cards
- Make sure your new cards are in your main deck and not in the public deck to ensure that you get those reviews as new cards first before getting new cards from the public deck you imported, otherwise you have to wait until you get to the very end of the public deck to see them, at which point they won’t be relevant to you anymore
NB: The TTMIK recordings and Korean transcripts are freely available online. Crowdsourced translations are being made at the Korean Wiki Project, but the official translations produced by TTMIK are for sale on their website. It’s hard to copy and past from their PDFs, though, as I don’t think they were designed with Anki in mind.
So what’s the big deal about Text-to-Speech?
This method of adding cards with audio from text sources is now my default, go-to method for learning languages. If you hear the phrase or the word, you are 1000 times more likely to remember. I just made up that number, but it’s probably pretty close.
Hear it. Speak it. Memorize it. – Carlos Douh
Being able to create audio from the text, rather than the other way around, gives you more control over what materials you study. I think this method combined with talking to native speakers after a few months of study is the most effective and sustainable method I’ve yet devised. It’s also scalable, so that you can simply add more cards when you want more material.
For example, if the phrases are arranged in a column with the translation under each phrase, how do you separate the target language phrases into a separate column? It’s a little trickier than I anticipated, but this can be done with Excel.
I will show you how to select only even rows or select only odd rows in Microsoft Excel, which I will use to take the phrases from the Wikitravel Cantonese phrasebook (I’ve also done this with Korean slang) and separate the translations into a separate column, so you can import the whole thing into Anki as a tab-delimited UTF-8 txt file produced by Excel.
1. Copy and paste the data into Excel
2. Use the “=ISEVEN() or =ISODD() function, combined with a ROW() function that references any cell in that row.” (click here for a tutorial).
3. As per step 2, type =ISEVEN(ROW(A1)) into the cell B1. It will turn to FALSE.
4. Copy the function in cell B1 into all the cells in the column.
5. Turn on the filter by selecting any cell in the column, then clicking the Filter button under Sort & Filter in the Data tab. (Source: techrepublic.com)
6. Next, “Click the new column’s filter dropdown and choose False or True.” (The “dropdown” is the little down-facing arrow in a blue box that should appear in the column.) (Source: techrepublic.com)
10. Open the .txt file in TextEdit, copy it, and save it again as a UTF-8 .txt file (the only kind Anki can read). Ready to import!
What do you think? Please let me know if these directions aren’t clear enough!