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Reading

~Chinese / 中文
《平如美棠》饶平如

~Japanese / 日本語
「女のいない男たち」村上春樹
「職業は武装解除」瀬谷ルミ子

~English
"Notes on Democracy" Arundhati Roy

~Korean / 한국어
《그렇습니까? 기린입니다》박민규
《소나기》 황순원

~Finished / 読了 / 已读
「コンビニ人間」村田沙耶香
"Factory Girls" Lesley Chang
"Your Republic is Calling You" Kim Young-ha
「色彩を持たない多崎つくると彼の巡礼の年」村上春樹
《裸命》陈冠中
"River Town" Peter Hessler
"Oracle Bones" Peter Hessler
"Country Driving" Peter Hessler
「カンガルー日和」村上春樹
「こころ」夏目漱石
「火の鳥9」 手塚治虫
《呐喊》鲁迅
《娃》莫言
《朋友》余华
"Inside the Kingdom" Robert Lacey
《活着》余华
"A Room of One's Own" Virginia Woolf
「羊をめぐる冒険」村上春樹
《阿Q正传》鲁迅
《倾城之恋 》张爱玲
《茉莉香片》张爱玲
《金锁记》张爱玲
「深夜特急」(2)沢木耕太郎
「1973年のピンボール」 村上春樹
"One Foot In Eden" Ron Rash
「双子の星」宮沢賢治

[New Book] Murakami Haruki interviewed by Kawakami Mieko – “The Horned Owl Takes Flight at Dusk”

On April 27th, Shinchōsha will publish another book related to Murakami Haruki, called The Horned Owl Takes Flight at Dusk (みみずくは黄昏に飛びたつ), or Haruki Murakami: A Long, Long Interview). The book is a long, long interview (11 hours, 250,000 characters) of Murakami by Kawakami Mieko, herself an award winning writer from Osaka (her novella Breasts and Eggs [乳と卵] won the Akutagawa Prize in 2008). It will cost 1,620 yen and can be pre-ordered now.

 

川上未映子が村上春樹を訊き尽くす!

Kawakami Meiko asks Murakami Haruki everything!
11時間、25万字の「まるごと一冊」インタビュー本

11 hours; 250,000 characters; “an entire book” of an interview

『騎士団長殺し』誕生秘話、少年期の記憶、フェミニズム、世界的名声、そして死後のこと……。
芥川賞作家にして、10代からの熱心な愛読者が、村上春樹のすべてを訊き尽くす。

The secret story of the birth of Killing Commendatore, memories of boyhood, feminism, global fame, and what happens after death… An Akutagawa Prize-winning author and a passionate, avid reader since her teens asks Murakami Haruki everything.

ただのインタビューではあらない

Not just an interview

比喩はどうやって思いつく?

How do you come up with similes?
「地下二階に降りる」とは?

What does it mean to “descend to the second story underground”?
結末を決めずに書けるって本当?

Is it true you can write without deciding on the ending?
イデアとメタファーって何?

What are “ideas” and “metaphors”?
じつは男を求める男の話?

Actually, a story about a man seeking a man?
なぜ文体が大事なの?

Why is writing style important?
女性が性的な役割を担わされ過ぎてません?

Aren’t women tasked with too many sexual roles?
自分の「影」を受け入れるって?

What does it mean to accept your “shadow”?
何があっても一日十枚書くの?

Do you always write ten pages a day, no matter what?
なぜ一人称に戻ったのですか?

Why did you return to the first person voice?
過去の自作を読み返さないのはなぜ?

Why don’t you read your prior works?
新作が何十万人に読まれる気分は?

What does it feel like to have your new work read by tens of thousands of people?
世界的に成功して、見返したい批評家はいます?

Now that you’re globally famous, are there critics you want to go back and respond to?
死んだらどうなる?

What happens after we die?
村上春樹賞はつくられますか?

Will there be a “Murakami Haruki Prize”?

誰もが知りたくて訊けなかった
創作の源泉とその素顔を
鮮烈な言葉で引き出した貴重な記録

A precious record of the origins of creative works, and their bare faces, that everyone wanted to know but couldn’t ask, drawn out through vivid words

Source: Shinchōsha

Intro Video to Kieran’s YouTube Channel

Hello!

 

It’s been a while since I published a blog post. I’ve been updating the look of my website after moving to a self-hosted WordPress site, which was really easy using Michael Hyatt’s method, which you can find in the link.

 

Today I want to share with you my YouTube channel. My username is kieranmaynard, so you can find me at youtube.com/user/kieranmaynard. Please take a look at my intro video, in three languages! (English, Chinese, and Japanese, with subtitles.)

 

Thanks for watching!

 

Kieran

How a Language Dies

A young woman describes the third generation drop-off of her grandmother’s native language, Chuvash (a Turkic language spoken in Russia and the Chuvash Republic), in the post Ep Sana Yoradap, or How a Language Dies, on the blog In Search of Perfect.

 

“My grandmother and her sisters speak Chuvash fluently. My mother understands the language, but does not speak it. I cannot claim even that, because I only know three words in Chuvash, albeit these are the most important words in the world, Ep Sana Yoradap [I love you]. It is not difficult to imagine what happens to Chuvash when my mom and grandma are no longer here.” – Yulia, “Ep Sana Yoradap, or How a Language Dies

 

The “third generation drop-off” is so named because the phenomenon that that Yulia describes is quite common; a language is spoken natively by grandparents, only partially by their children, and not at all by their grandchildren. In three generations, a language can go completely extinct!

 

What do you think? Is language diversity important? Should we try to preserve languages?

Children of Rome: Are the Romance Languages Latin Progeny?

I once thought that the Romance Languages were “descended” from Latin. In linguistics class at the University of Georgia I was taught to understand language relatedness in the form of a tree diagram. The proto-language (i.e. hypothetical mother language of which we have no records) Indo-European contains an Italic branch that becomes Latin, which further down the line spawns Italian, French, Romansch, Romanian, etc. Indeed, with today’s advances in comparative linguistics one could hardly miss the similarities between these languages. But are they really descended from Latin? Did so-called Classical Latin really evolve into French and Spanish?

When I brought this up with Dr. Haneda Masashi of the University of Tokyo, he was skeptical of the idea. The influence of the Roman empire did not extend into all fields of linguistic endeavor. More likely than not, people did not consciously emulate the speech of Rome. They may have adopted Roman ways, but they simply did not have the means to emulate the speech of the capital. Why? I surmise because they never went there, they had no radios or recording devices of any kind, and there was no standardized education system. In his class on Chinese Topolect Studies at Fudan, Dr. Tao Huan(陶寰) said that linguists no longer consider the “Romance Languages” to be the descendants of the Latin language as spoken in Rome. Likely, they developed their own local dialects as Latin spread with Roman rule, and these evolved into the myriad “Romance Languages” of Europe.

What does this tell us about modern languages?

The modern languages most of us are likely to study are very likely recent constructs. I learned at conferences at Fudan that “Standard Japanese” and “Mandarin Chinese” were created in the late 19th and early 20th Century, respectively, fashioned out of different dialects by philologists who followed the European trend of creating a “national language.” After all, if you are going to create a “modern nation,” shouldn’t you also create a “national language,” a “national religion,” and a “national people?” In Japan, these were “Standard Japanese,” “Shinto,” and “the Japanese people.” The greatly varied topolects of Japan were stigmatized (and mostly driven to extinction), Buddhism was outlawed (temporarily, but many temples were destroyed and never rebuilt), and the diverse cultural makeup of the archipelago was denied in favor of a mythical “Japanese race.” In the 19th Century, much of what Japanese knew about nation building they learned from Europeans like Lorenz von Stein. Europeans were engaged in their own nation building projects, which they believed necessitated the creation of “national languages” like “German” and “Italian.”

This week Fudan is holding a series of guest lectures by James J. O’Donnell, University Professor at Georgetown University. Today he lectured on the “Old Story of the Old World,” or the traditional story of the “rise of Greece” and the “decline and fall of the Roman empire.” As he sees it, the Roman empire didn’t fall until 1924, when the Ottoman Empire, which had inherited the territory of Rome, was finally dissolved. I asked about the linguistic situation in the ancient world, and he told us a story. He said there was a German writer who grew up in Bulgaria, and he remembers that his uncle could speak 17 languages. By “speak,” he probably meant his uncle could ask directions, find a place to sleep, and make a little conversation. He could read only one language, but he could get around in a lot more. This is the “natural state” of language. People speak one way in their village; walk across the hill to the next village and they will laugh at their neighbors’ funny accents (or shake their heads in dismay when they understand nothing at all). St. Augustine, who was from Africa, was laughed at for his funny accent in Rome. Language is naturally extremely varied, and like nationality and ethnicity, “national language” is a cultural construct.

What does this teach us about studying languages?

Only understand that language is extremely varied, and modern national languages are a convenience. They are a tool to be used, not a bill to be filled. Stick to one language variety, and eventually the great variety will become apparent. Language isn’t perfect—it’s just something people do.

Four Phases of Learning a Language

There’s a lot of great writing out there about learning languages (much of it better than mine), but there are some things I’ve learned studying languages that I wish I had known a long time ago. For one, I have found that learning a language may be thought of as divided into four phases. I have only anecdotal evidence, but this has been my experience learning Chinese and Japanese.

 

1. Beginner

 
Assuming you start out with no prior knowledge, in the beginning you know nothing. In reality you almost never know “nothing”—Japanese, for example, is full of English words that are readily understandable, and Spanish is full of Latin cognates—but in the beginning you can’t understand more than a word or two of what you read or hear. The first step is to learn how to pronounce the language you are learning, and how to read and write it in a phonetic script (like Chinese pinyin, Japanese romaji, or the Spanish alphabet). After this stage I would begin to memorize the most frequent words, preferably embedded in short phrases and sentences with English translations. Some people do pictures. I find it’s easier to copy English translations, and the most common words are so common they don’t need much help to remember. In the Beginner stage you need English translations to make heads or tails of most sentences and spend a lot of time sounding out words.

 
2. Intermediate

 
After Beginner you will reach the Intermediate stage. I define intermediate as the point where you can read texts and listen to speech and understand some parts with the aid of a dictionary. There’s no fine line between Beginner and Intermediate. I probably spent more than a year as a Beginner in Japanese, but not more than a week as a Beginner in Spanish.  This was only partly due to differences in the languages themselves, but mostly due to the fact that I made almost no effort to engage with real Japanese (for native speakers, by native speakers) in the first year I learned that language, whereas I began Spanish with Borges and Wikipedia pages. The Intermediate stage is what is usually stretched indefinitely by language courses of all stripes. (Perhaps because by the time you level up, you no longer feel the need to pay them for what you can get for free?)

 
3. Advanced

 
When you are fluent, you are Advanced. I get asked a lot how I define fluency, and the honest answer is: I don’t. At some point I just didn’t need to check the dictionary all that much to read Japanese, and the same thing happened with Chinese. At some point, I didn’t have to keep asking people, “What did you just say?” It’s not that I was suddenly able to understand everything, but that I was able to understand enough. I believe a dedicated learning can skip the Beginner stage in a couple of weeks and make it to Advanced in not more than a year. The key variables are your level of interest and how much input you receive. The former depends upon your ability to know thyself and pick engaging materials, and the latter depends on your consumption.

 
4. “Native Fluency”

 
Like many language learners, I too hope to someday evolve into a “native speaker.” Do the scare quotes betray my skepticism? I have a gut feeling that a native speaker is nothing more than a speaker who is really good at matching patterns in sound to memorized patterns in speech, and at catching high-frequency words while ignoring words they don’t quite understand. In other words, just someone who is Really Advanced because they kept getting better until they were “good enough” at their language to do what they want with it. That is, they have internalized the most frequent patterns of speech and text so as to know what to expect, and how to break those patterns to be “creative.” (Or how to follow the patterns and bore us to death.) I talk a lot about “patterns” because I think they are the key to efficient learning and effective use of language. My teacher Dr. Kretzchmar once said that on the level of language, almost all “creative writing” depends upon the manipulation of expected patterns of language. Grasp the patterns, and you hold the key of the mundane. Open the door to the garden of language delights.

Four tricks to say a lot with a little

Dear Readers,

On CouchSurfing a woman from Japan made an interesting post about her plan to couchsurf in Finland. She didn’t speak much English, so she asked other CSers for advice on how to better reach mutual understanding with her Finnish hosts. We don’t always (if ever) have time to reach native fluency before we engage with native speakers, so how can we say a lot with a little language?

The four tips from surfers were as follows:

 

4 Use a dictionary

Keep a dictionary or phrasebook on hand. She later said her cell phone dictionary came in handy.

3 Use everything you know

No matter how limited your vocabulary, you will find you can bring it all to bear when face to face with someone you want to talk to. Your speaking partner will likely fill in gaps and correct you.

2 Talk face to face

It’s proven that understanding speech over the phone is harder than understanding speech face-to-face. This isn’t only because of gestures and facial expressions. The phone actually cuts off high frequency sound waves, making it hard to distinguish between words like “sip” and “ship.” (The distinction occurs in the high frequencies.) The poster said that a combination of exaggerated gestures and drawings helped things along.

1 Speak up

Whatever you do, don’t keep silent. The worst pronunciation is a mouth closed. The more you say, the more likely your speaking partner will be able to follow and infer what you mean, and the more friendly and open to conversation you will seem!

 

Keep speaking, my friends.

 

Kieran

 

~原稿の日本語は下記~

Aさん:英語でのメッセージのやり取りの際にはどのような工夫をしていますか? 

Bさん:電子辞書を持ってらしたら、是非持って行って下さい。

Cさん:一生懸命話していると相手が勝手に修正して聞いてくれているようです。

私:英語の発音、文法とかが色々ありますので英語をしゃべる人はそれに慣れていると思います。特に顔合わせる時に表情とかが色んなニュアンスを伝えるから大丈夫だと思います。

 Dさん: 黙ったら聞き手が手伝ってくれることができなくなります。逆に、単語や文法を失敗しても、最後まで言ったら相手が大ざっぱな意味をとらえて修正したり聞き返したりして意味を絞る事ができる可能性が増えます。

 Aさん:携帯電話の辞書機能がなかなか役にたちました!

…頑張って、知ってる単語や表現を駆使して話していたら、ほんとうに相手の方も一生懸命聞いて理解しようと努力してくださいました!

…電話で話すときよりも、直接会って話したときの方が確かにお互いの会話の理解がしやすかったです! 表情やジェスチャーを大げさにしたり、あと、イラストを描いて言いたいことを伝えたりもしてみました。

…英語でどう表現すれば良いのかわからなくてじっと考えこんでしまうよりも、口に出しながら考えるほうがうまくいくことが多かった気がします。

Kieran Maynard

Kieran Maynard

Writer, translator, researcher, traveler specializing in Japanese and Chinese literature.

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