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Four Phases of Learning a Language

There’s a lot of great writing out there about learning languages (much of it better than mine), but there are some things I’ve learned studying languages that I wish I had known a long time ago. For one, I have found that learning a language may be thought of as divided into four phases. I have only anecdotal evidence, but this has been my experience learning Chinese and Japanese.


1. Beginner

Assuming you start out with no prior knowledge, in the beginning you know nothing. In reality you almost never know “nothing”—Japanese, for example, is full of English words that are readily understandable, and Spanish is full of Latin cognates—but in the beginning you can’t understand more than a word or two of what you read or hear. The first step is to learn how to pronounce the language you are learning, and how to read and write it in a phonetic script (like Chinese pinyin, Japanese romaji, or the Spanish alphabet). After this stage I would begin to memorize the most frequent words, preferably embedded in short phrases and sentences with English translations. Some people do pictures. I find it’s easier to copy English translations, and the most common words are so common they don’t need much help to remember. In the Beginner stage you need English translations to make heads or tails of most sentences and spend a lot of time sounding out words.

2. Intermediate

After Beginner you will reach the Intermediate stage. I define intermediate as the point where you can read texts and listen to speech and understand some parts with the aid of a dictionary. There’s no fine line between Beginner and Intermediate. I probably spent more than a year as a Beginner in Japanese, but not more than a week as a Beginner in Spanish.  This was only partly due to differences in the languages themselves, but mostly due to the fact that I made almost no effort to engage with real Japanese (for native speakers, by native speakers) in the first year I learned that language, whereas I began Spanish with Borges and Wikipedia pages. The Intermediate stage is what is usually stretched indefinitely by language courses of all stripes. (Perhaps because by the time you level up, you no longer feel the need to pay them for what you can get for free?)

3. Advanced

When you are fluent, you are Advanced. I get asked a lot how I define fluency, and the honest answer is: I don’t. At some point I just didn’t need to check the dictionary all that much to read Japanese, and the same thing happened with Chinese. At some point, I didn’t have to keep asking people, “What did you just say?” It’s not that I was suddenly able to understand everything, but that I was able to understand enough. I believe a dedicated learning can skip the Beginner stage in a couple of weeks and make it to Advanced in not more than a year. The key variables are your level of interest and how much input you receive. The former depends upon your ability to know thyself and pick engaging materials, and the latter depends on your consumption.

4. “Native Fluency”

Like many language learners, I too hope to someday evolve into a “native speaker.” Do the scare quotes betray my skepticism? I have a gut feeling that a native speaker is nothing more than a speaker who is really good at matching patterns in sound to memorized patterns in speech, and at catching high-frequency words while ignoring words they don’t quite understand. In other words, just someone who is Really Advanced because they kept getting better until they were “good enough” at their language to do what they want with it. That is, they have internalized the most frequent patterns of speech and text so as to know what to expect, and how to break those patterns to be “creative.” (Or how to follow the patterns and bore us to death.) I talk a lot about “patterns” because I think they are the key to efficient learning and effective use of language. My teacher Dr. Kretzchmar once said that on the level of language, almost all “creative writing” depends upon the manipulation of expected patterns of language. Grasp the patterns, and you hold the key of the mundane. Open the door to the garden of language delights.


  1. travelchic says:

    I took a Spanish beginner course few months ago. I’m sure use “English translations to make heads or tails of most sentences and spend a lot of time sounding out words.”

    • Kieran Maynard says:

      I’m with you! I’m going to try reading texts in Spanish and try out some new learning methods like Learning With Texts and LingQ.

  2. quisquilia says:

    I agree pretty much with your outline of learning a language, but I think it is necessary to emphasise (and nigh impossible to underestimate) the need for actively practicing a language in order to achieve language proficiency. I find myself in the curious situation of re-learning French (after taking a break of almost 20 years), and I am lucky to have both the resources (language courses at the university nearby) and native speakers as friends to give me a nudge again and again to speak actively. To the contrary, my attempts at learning Yiddish are pretty much still in the beginner’s stage. As I have no opportunity to practice the language, I’m limited to my own reading here and there and putting together known phrases – à la pieces of a puzzle – to form slightly more complex sentences. Pattern recognition is probably an apt description of my current level. Bilingual texts prove helpful here.

    • Kieran Maynard says:

      I couldn’t agree with you more. I sometimes have people ask me, “But isn’t Chinese/Japanese a hard language?” I guess I’ve yet to learn an “easy” language, if such a thing exists (Esperanto?), but I think any language can be learned with enough input, in some combination of “passive” input (like reading or listening idly) and “active” input (like listening intently, looking up words while reading, or reviewing with Anki). I think it would be quite difficult to learn a language for which few audiovisual and reading materials are available. I am impressed you remember much French after so long. How are you learning Yiddish?

  3. […] Four Phases of Learning a Language. […]

  4. kiroma: great post, and i’ve reposted…thx for sharing! RT

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Kieran Maynard

Kieran Maynard

Writer, translator, researcher, traveler specializing in Japanese and Chinese literature.

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